The concurring disorders of Dyslexia
School services for children with disabilities are develop thought and individual planning process. The planning process involves collaboration and participation from Parents, educators, and other professionals.

For Infants and toddlers that process results in an (IFSP) Individualized Family Plan.
For children 3 to 21 the process results in a Individualized (IEP)
The IEP and IFSP meetings involve a collaborative process.

Neurological disorder
Are Medical defined Disorders that affect the Brain?

This will manifest itself in inability to: Listen, speak, read and write, spell or perform Mathematical Calculations.
The difficulties in the processes involved, will present difficulty in processing information, and Challenges in learning.
It is Important to understand; there are not intellectual Disabilities.

Intellectual Disabilities
Involves difficulties with general mental abilities that affect functioning such Learning problem solving, judgement, adaptive functioning. Activities of daily life such as communication or independent living

Multiple disabilities Individual presents one or more impairments such, Intellectual disability, Orthopedic impairments. That adversely affect individuals functioning. This does not include Deafness and blindness this are separate categories.


● Reading, writing, understanding Language.
● Integrating, sequencing, abstraction
● Long term and short-term Memory
● Recalling information
● Organizing information
● This will affect expressive Language.
● Inability to express thoughts.
● Motor difficulties in handwriting, letter formation, inability to hold pencil. Objects

Difficulties affect all areas within the individual’s environment.

● This are lifelong differences that varied in severity.
● Differences affect any or several areas of life.
● Differences may progress as individual grows.
● Differences manifest differently depending on the individuals. environment and the individuals’ strengths and needs.

Dyslexia, is a specific learning disability it is described as a disorder that is neurological in origin, characterized by difficulties with accurate and fluent word recognition, reading and writing. This will present itself in Difficulties in learning.

• Difficulties in Language recognition and
• mastering of the mechanics of language. Difficulties in phonics and accurate word recognition. Poor spelling and decoding abilities.
Difficulties with recalling and retrieval of information. This will affect comprehension in some situations.

It is of most importance to understand that Reading is an acquired skill that must be taught.
While they are various forms of Dyslexia, this can be circumvented by early identification and proper teaching; Instruction has great barring in how the individual progresses towards acquiring skills in learning.
It is important to note the way a dyslexic brain process information in a rather a special way. Dyslexia is not a disease.
And can be remedy; with proper instruction and remedial practices, designed to address the individual needs of the learner.

There are different types of Dyslexia.
Surface Dyslexia: the most common type of dyslexia
Individuals present difficulties in learning to read. This can lead to slow reading. Poor spelling and language difficulties. In Some types of dyslexia individuals will show high level literal achievements and can be avid readers, in some types of dyslexia the learner is able to spell out words letter-by-letter. The phonological route is intact, and individual is capable of matching letters to sound and can read text only by spelling them out.

In the case of surface Dyslexia, the letters and words and their sequences are not stable. The images of whole words are not stored in the mental lexicon.
Deep Dyslexia: often called severe Phonological Dyslexia. Is the most complex form of this learning disability.

Individuals struggles with letter-to-sound correspondence, decoding. This will have impact in comprehension, spelling. Decoding abilities.
Phonological module is functioning inadequately.

The 3 stages of development of reading skills.

1- At the Logographic stage Words are recognized and store as images.
There is no letter to sound correspondence yet, only the whole picture of the word.
A person with deep/severe/phonological/ dyslexia gets stuck at the logographic stage and are unable to Mach sound to letters. Unable to read non-sense -text and only know words that have seen, and their memory has kept logographically.

2- The alphabetic reading stage is where the Graphene- phoneme correspondence appears the individual can spell out words letter by letter at this stage.
In the case of surface Dyslexia Words and their sequences are not stable. Individual phonological areas are intact but can read only by spelling letters individually. Pictures of words are not stored in their mental lexicon.

3- At the orthographic stage, the individual is capable in phonological areas, and can read words and sentences withow spelling them out using the images of the words stored in the mental lexicon, can Match sound to letter.
At this stage and individual with severe or Phonological Dyslexia struggles with phonological skills. Individual will have great difficulties in matching sounds to letters and decoding.

Dyscalculia is a concurring disorder of dyslexia that presents itself with difficulties with math calculations.

Dyscalculia can appear in the case of surface Dyslexia if the method of instruction is not helping the individual of way of processing information. As this is one of the main characteristics of the Dyslexic brain.
While they are various forms of Dyslexia and Dyscalculia this can be circumvented by early identification and proper teaching; Instruction has great barring in how the individual progresses towards acquiring skills in learning.
Visual and verbal aids are supportive of the dyslexic brain, calculation should be supported by visual tools. Manipulatives to make connection of the relationships and details of concepts. This also applies for general acquisition of knowledge and skills in all learning.

Dyscalculia is a math learning disability.

Including weaknesses in understanding the sequencing and meaning of numbers’
Difficulties applying mathematical principles to solve problems. Struggle in acquisition and understanding of key mathematical.
Struggles in recalling memorizing Math facts.

There are types of Dyscalculia these are based on different neurological deviances concurrent to dyslexia.

The problem emerges as an unstable sense of relations and unclear details, these difficulties are similar to those of Surface Dyslexia the consequence is poor calculations and math abilities.

• Mixing numbers, quantities math signs.
• Mixing operations.
• Confusion in sequential spatial orientation relations.
• Misunderstanding and mixing math concepts.
• Misunderstanding tasks.
Difficulties understanding mathematical logical rules.

The more severe form of Dyscalculia is characterized by an inability to understand simple number concepts and to master basic numeracy skills. Difficulties dealing with numbers at a very elementary levels;

• Learning numerical facts, dates, procedures.
• Telling time, keeping time.
• Understanding quantity, prices, and value of money.
• Difficulties with recollection, retention of information.
• Solving Contextualized task separately for each type of operation.
• Number sequence.
• Understanding place value.
• Continuity of counting.

Dysgraphia is a learning disability that is a neurological in origin it is characterized by difficulties with fine motor skills.

• Disorder will Impact written expression motor skills.
• Individual Struggles with writing ability such as distorted handwriting
• Difficulties in mastering the movements needed to form letters.
• Struggles with organizing writing and expression. Inability to hold pencil properly or applies to much pressure while writing.

Auditory Processing disorder (APD): present itself with difficulties in processing the sounds of speech.
Difficulties with Auditory Discrimination: Noticing, comparing, and distinguishing between separate sounds.
Auditory figure -ground discrimination: focusing on the important sounds in a noisy environment.
Auditory memory: recalling what you heard. Either immediately or in the future. Auditory sequencing: understanding and recalling the order of sounds and words.

Auditory Processing will affect working memory it is not hearing lost.

• Trouble following spoken directions especially multistep ones.
• Difficulties following conversation especially if there are sounds that originate from
background noise.
• Individual is easily distracted by background noise or loud noises.
• Trouble recalling details that are read or spelling.
• Takes longer to respond due to processing difficulties.
• Difficulties in knowing where sound/speech originate from.

ADHD Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental chronic condition that displays itself as inattention and impulsiveness.
This will present as Difficulties with holding attention. Individual struggles with Hyperactivity
Inability to focus and concentrating.
It will affect the individual’s behavior.
Individuals have no control of the impulsive behavior. Treatment often involves medication and behavioral interventions.

• -Struggles to follow directions
• Impulsive, distractible
• Poor attention to details
• Appear not to listen.
• Difficulties in organizing information.

• Losses things
• Takes excessive time completing work or does not complete work.
• Talks excessive in class.
• Lacks mental focus.
• Is forgetful in daily activities.
• Needs redirection and prompts interested in everything.
• Trouble with transitions
• inattention •
• Fidgets with hands and feet inability to stay still
• Difficulty remaining seated.
• Excessive, extreme restlessness
• Difficulty’s in engaging in activities quietly.
• as if driven by a motor.
• Talks excessively.
• Blurts out answers out of turn.
• Difficulty’s in awaiting or taking turns.
• Interrupts or intrudes upon others.

Meets the criteria of both Inattention and Hyperactivity –impulse Presentations.

Behavioral Disorders can often be concurrent with learning disabilities. Understanding of the basic disorders provides. knowledge towards helping Parents, educators in developing the (BIP) plan. with tools and positive behavioral neuroscience- base remediations and strategies, for children experiencing Behavioral challenges. In promoting psychological Health and development of healthy interactions for learning success.

-Conduct Disorder
Persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age- appropriate norms are violated.
Deliberated rule breaking behavior, noncompliant, intrusive, and poorly- self-controlled. Children with symptoms experience severe impairments that affect relationships, learning and can lead to future adverse circumstances.

-Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
Repetitive uncooperative, defiant, and argumentative behavior
Children with symptoms experience severe impairments that affect relationships, learning and can lead to future adverse circumstances.

-Destructive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD)
A Condition of extreme anger and frequent intense temper outburst
Children with symptoms experience severe impairments that affect relationships, learning and can lead to future adverse circumstances.
-Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD)
A condition in which an individual does not form secure healthy emotional bonds with his or her personal relationships, caregivers. Difficulties in managing emotions, struggles to form meaningful connections with others.

Anxiety & Depression There are several types of depression.
Emotional symptoms that are untreated affect ability to function. Characterized by Disconnection, withdrawal, and shutdown untreated can lead to adverse circumstances, suicide.

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD)
A condition in which the individual has trouble interpreting environmental signals. Difficulties
integrating information through the senses. Environment interferes with functioning.

By Parent Education for exceptional children.

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